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中国对美“进口承诺”可能性?官员回应
www.creaders.net | 2018-05-16 11:07:37  观察者网 | 0条评论 | 查看/发表评论
  

5月16日,彭博社刊发中国常驻世贸组织代表团大使张向晨专访文章,从中美贸易摩擦等热点话题切入。

张向晨认为,中美在经贸领域显然存在利益交集,但需要以诚意来寻找。中美两国之间很多问题具有复杂性,通过沟通、谈判解决彼此的贸易关注是一项长期的任务。举起大棒,是错误地对待别人的问题,放下大棒,才能正确地面对自己的问题。“短期内,我也相信中美有足够的智慧找到办法解决双边经贸关系中的紧迫问题,拭目以待。”

针对彭博社援引美国大使丹尼斯·谢伊的话称“中国是‘破坏全球开放和公平贸易体制’的‘单边主义者’。并称中国是‘最具保护主义,重商主义的经济体’,自称是‘自由贸易和全球贸易体系的捍卫者’。”张向晨连用两个反问句予以回击:“我在世贸组织总理事会上讲过,衡量单边主义的标准只能是多边规则,而不是凭什么人乱扣帽子。你见过主动降低关税、开放金融市场的‘保护主义者’吗?你见过积极筹备进口博览会、欢迎各国出口至本国市场的‘重商主义者’吗?”

张向晨

本月早些时候,中美两国举行了首轮贸易谈判。对此,彭博社在提问中称,在北京结束的中美高层贸易谈判表明双方差距巨大。据说美国已要求中国在2020年前将贸易顺差至少减少2000亿美元,并且不得对美国拟议的关税措施进行报复。

在被问及上述要求是否符合WTO规则,中国接受这些要求的可能性有多大时,张向晨表示,在多边贸易体制上,曾有过极个别“进口承诺”的事例。这种做法违反世贸组织“非歧视原则”,早已成为历史陈迹。而所谓的“自愿出口限制”,毫无例外地都不是“自愿”的,也为多边纪律所不容。“美国一方面指责中国政府干预经济,一方面又要求中国以政府命令方式增加进口、限制出口、减少过剩产能,这在逻辑上是说不通的。贸易是你情我愿的交易,政府可以做一些贸易促进工作,但不能用枪顶着企业去做。”

上个月,美方扬言考虑对中国1500亿美元商品加征关税。对于彭博社有关中国还有什么工具可以抵消加征关税威胁的提问,张向晨表示,作为一个大国,中国的政策工具箱里当然会有“十八般兵器”,但绝不会轻易使用。用不用、用哪件、何时用,需要根据形势发展而定,但目的只有一个,恢复正常的贸易秩序,“止戈为武”。

同样是在上月,中国分别就美“301条款”和“232条款”措施在WTO争端解决机制下提出诉讼。张向晨告诉彭博社,关于“301条款”案,中方的目标是将这只猛兽重新关进世贸规则的笼子里,不再让它兴风作浪。关于“232条款”案,中方希望借此恢复所有成员对“国家安全”问题原有的审慎态度。

根据商务部资料显示,今年53岁的张向晨(1965年生人)目前为中国常驻世贸组织代表、特命全权大使。此前,他为中国国际贸易谈判副代表,是国内精通世界贸易的专家之一,主张世界贸易自由化、反对贸易战。

据悉,张向晨曾于2008年至2011年在中国驻日内瓦世贸组织办事处工作,就任代表团副团长。

彭博社曾报道称,特朗普在美国总统大选获胜后,张向晨是首位向外国商界介绍中国领导层如何看待世界经济未来的官员。在北京一场中国美国商会举行的晚宴上,他就新形势下应避免贸易战进行了阐述。

以下为彭博社采访全文,共六个问题,商务部全文翻译,转自微信公号“商务微新闻”:

5月16日,彭博社刊发中国常驻世贸组织代表团大使张向晨专访文章,从中美贸易摩擦等热点话题切入,六问六答,金句频出。

谈及中美贸易摩擦,张向晨大使为何连用两个反问句?

Q&A

1、彭博社:中国在WTO就美国“301条款”和“232条款”下的贸易措施提出诉讼。最新进展怎样?解决争议的可能性如何?

China has filed complaints about the U.S. trade actions under Section 301 and Section 232 at the WTO. What’s the latest progress? What’s the likelihood of getting a dispute settlement?

张向晨大使:上月初,中国分别就美“301条款”和“232条款”措施在WTO争端解决机制下提出诉讼。这两个条款违反哪些规则、中方起诉背景和所持立场,我不一一赘述。

China submitted complaints to the WTO dispute settlement mechanism on the US Section 301 and Section 232 measures early last month. I would not elaborate on the measures or how they have violated the WTO rules, which I had clearly stated at the WTO general council meeting last week.

关于“301条款”案,我们的目标是将这只猛兽重新关进世贸规则的笼子里,再也不让它跑出来兴风作浪。关于“232条款”案,我们希望借此恢复所有成员对“国家安全”问题原有的审慎态度。

Rather, I want to emphasize that our objective for the Section 301 case is to lock this beast back into the cage of the WTO rules, stop it from causing any further harm to any members. By initiating the Section 232 case, we want to restore the self-restraint and caution exercised by Members with regard to the “Security Exceptions” clause.

中国将按照WTO争端解决程序继续推进这两项诉讼。WTO争端解决机制应当有能力解决这些争议,维护正常的国际经贸秩序,这正是争端解决机制建立的初衷。

China will proceed with these two cases in accordance with the WTO dispute settlement procedures. I am confident that the WTO dispute settlement mechanism is capable of resolving these disputes and safeguarding the normal order of international trade, which is exactly the intent of establishing the dispute settlement mechanism.

2、彭博社:美国大使丹尼斯·谢伊最近在世贸组织总理事会上说,中国是“破坏全球开放和公平贸易体制”的“单边主义者”。他还称中国是“最具保护主义,重商主义的经济体”,自称是“自由贸易和全球贸易体系的捍卫者”。你的论点是什么?其他成员对此如何看?

U.S. Ambassador Dennis Shea recently said at a WTO general council meeting that China is the "unilateralist" which "undermines the global system of open and fair trade". He also called China "the most protectionist, mercantilist economy" that claims it is the "defender of free trade and the global trading system." What’s your counter-argument and how do other members view this?

张向晨大使:我在世贸组织总理事会上讲过,衡量单边主义的标准只能是多边规则,而不是凭什么人乱扣帽子。你见过主动降低关税、开放金融市场的“保护主义者”吗?你见过积极筹备进口博览会、欢迎各国出口至本国市场的“重商主义者”吗?

As I was saying at the meeting, it is the multilateral rules which can serve as the one and only criterion to determine unilateralism rather than throwing labels around. Have you ever seen a “protectionist” who is voluntarily cutting tariffs and liberalizing its financial market? Have you ever seen a "mercantilist" who is hosting an International Import Expo and welcoming other countries to export to its market?

中国也很愿意和美国在WTO讨论一下什么是“单边主义”。我们应当通过讨论和谈判解决彼此的贸易关注。在WTO框架下讨论、谈判,包括诉诸争端解决机制来裁决彼此的分歧,这些都是多边主义的体现。反之,如果所有成员都按照自己的立场、标准对其他成员进行评判,并任意采取制裁措施,例如像“301条款”这样的措施,那就是对多边主义的破坏。

China is very much willing to further discuss with the U.S. regarding “unilateralism" in the WTO. Trade concerns should be addressed through discussions and negotiations under the WTO framework, including resorting to the dispute settlement mechanism. This is the way multilateralism works. By contrast, if members take WTO law in their own hands, judge and sanction others by their own standards, such as the Section 301 measures, it would be a breach of multilateralism.

至于其他成员对此评论,建议你看一下总理事会各成员的发言。此次会议上,100多个世贸成员在总理事会上单独或者联合发表声明,要求尽快启动上诉机构成员遴选,反对美国依据“232条款”、“301条款”采取的单边行动和贸易保护主义措施,呼吁维护多边贸易体制的权威和稳定。这些立场世贸组织都记录在案,历史不应随意被人解读,更不应被歪曲篡改。

As for the comments from other members at the meeting, I would suggest you look at the statements by relevant members. More than 100 WTO members have either spoken individually or co-sponsored joint statements at the General Council meeting, urging members to launch the new appellate body member selection process without delay, opposing the unilateral and protectionist actions taken by the U.S. based on Section 232 and Section 301, as well as calling for safeguarding the credibility and stability of the multilateral trading system. These statements and positions are well recorded by the WTO secretariat. History is not and should not be wrongfully interpreted or twisted.

3、彭博社:你有数十年与美国谈判的经验。你对目前的中美贸易摩擦有何看法?如何解决呢?

You have decades of experience negotiating with the U.S. What’s your view on the current China-U.S. trade dispute and how can it be solved?

张向晨大使:时过境迁,过去的经验未必有用。21世纪不是20世纪80年代,北京也不是东京。

Water flows, things change. Past experience is not necessarily helpful in tackling today’s problems. We must be clear that the 21st century is not the 1980s, and Beijing is not Tokyo.

点击查看大图

中美在经贸领域显然存在利益交集,但需要以诚意来寻找。习近平主席多次强调,“太平洋足够大,容得下中美两国的共同发展”。

There are evidently common interests between China and the U.S. in areas of economics and trade, but the common interests can only be found with good faith. President Xi Jinping has emphasized that “the Pacific Ocean is broad enough to accommodate the development of both China and the United States.”

举起大棒,是错误地对待别人的问题,放下大棒,才能正确地面对自己的问题。中美两国之间很多问题具有复杂性,通过沟通、谈判解决彼此的贸易关注是一项长期的任务。

By raising up the stick, one is wrongfully treating the concerns of others. By putting down the stick, one is rightly facing its own problems. There are quite many issues that are complicated between China and the U.S. It will be a long-term task to address concerns of each side through consultations and negotiations.

短期内,我也相信中美有足够的智慧找到办法解决双边经贸关系中的紧迫问题,拭目以待。

For the time being, I also believe that the two sides have enough wisdom to find solutions to the pressing issues in the bilateral economic and trade ties. Let us keep our fingers crossed.

4、彭博社:你认为世贸组织面临着一场生存危机吗?多边主义处于危险之中?

Do you believe the WTO is facing an existential crisis? Is mutilateralism at peril?

张向晨大使:从《关贸总协定》到世贸组织,多边贸易体制一直是推动自由贸易和促进经济发展的最佳平台。它也为二战以来美国的长期繁荣作出了重要贡献。

From GATT to WTO, the multilateral trading system has been proven to be the most valuable and important platform in promoting free trade and achieving economic development, and it has also contributed remarkably to the prosperity of the U.S. since the 1940s.

目前,世贸组织正遭受“三重打击”,美国阻挠新上诉机构成员遴选,援引国内法的“232条款”采取贸易限制措施,在“301条款”下威胁对来自中国的500亿美元进口产品加征关税。

Currently, the WTO is confronted with “three hard blows." The U.S. is blocking selection of new appellate body members, taking restrictive trade measures under Section 232 and threatening to impose tariffs on $50 billion of goods imported from China under Section 301 of U.S. domestic law.

其中任何一项行动,若不及时解决,都将严重影响世贸组织的正常运行,甚至使之陷入瘫痪。同时,世贸组织还面临着三大挑战:维护核心价值、履行基本职能和探索制订新规。

Any one of these, if left untreated, will fatally undermine the functioning of the WTO. In the meantime, the WTO is also facing “three main challenges” -- safeguarding its core values, fulfilling its basic functions and exploring new trade rules.

空气和水是人生存之本,但人们却仅在稀缺的时候方知其珍贵。危机使很多世贸成员产生了危机感,也更清楚地认识到多边贸易体制的重要性。这对于帮助世贸组织走出困境是有意义的。

Air and water are critical for survival, but we seldom notice them unless they become scarce. The current situation faced by the WTO has given many members a sense of crisis, making them increasingly realize the importance of the multilateral trading system. This sense of crisis is essential to getting the WTO out of the difficulties.

但是,危机转化为机遇是需要条件的,这些条件尚不完全具备:

However, in order to transform crisis into opportunity, there must be certain conditions in place. For now, these conditions are not yet met.

点击查看大图

首先,各方要联手抵制保护主义,这一点正得到越来越多成员的响应;

First, all members should lock arm against protectionism. It is heartening to see that more and more members have joined this army of solidarity.

其次,要通过协商,恢复世贸组织功能的正常运转;

Second, it is imperative to resume WTO full functions through consultations.

第三,要与时俱进,探索新领域的新规则,反映工商界的普遍诉求。

Third, it is necessary to stay relevant by exploring new rules in new areas, responding to the aspirations of the business community.

后两点,特别是第三点,还有相当长的路要走。

In terms of the latter two points, particularly the third one mentioned above, there is still a long way go.

5、彭博社:本月早些时候在北京结束的中美高层贸易谈判表明双方差距巨大。据说美国已要求中国在2020年前将贸易顺差至少减少2000亿美元,并且不得对美国拟议的关税措施进行报复。这些要求是否符合WTO规则?中国接受这些要求的可能性有多大?

The high-level trade talks between China and the U.S. that ended earlier this month in Beijing showed how far apart the two sides are. The U.S. is said to have asked China to cut its trade surplus by at least $200 billion by the end of 2020 and to refrain from retaliation against its proposed U.S. tariffs. Are these demands in line with WTO rules? How likely is it for China to accept the requests?

张向晨大使:我相信不少朋友在关注中美高层贸易谈判。在多边贸易体制上,曾有过极个别“进口承诺”的事例。这种做法违反世贸组织“非歧视原则”,早已成为历史陈迹。而所谓的“自愿出口限制”,毫无例外地都不是“自愿”的,也为多边纪律所不容。

I know that many readers are closely following the Sino-U.S. high-level trade negotiations. In the history of the multilateral trading system, there have been few instances of "import commitments." Such practice has clearly violated the "non-discrimination principle" of the GATT, and therefore has long been abandoned. So-called "voluntary export restrictions" have never been "voluntary" no matter how you look at it, which has also been prohibited by multilateral disciplines.

美国一方面指责中国政府干预经济,一方面又要求中国以政府命令方式增加进口、限制出口、减少过剩产能,这在逻辑上是说不通的。

It doesn’t make any sense that the U.S. is blaming the Chinese Government for state intervention on the one hand, while pressing China, by way of issuing government orders, to increase imports, restrict exports, and reduce excess capacity on the other hand.

贸易是你情我愿的交易,政府可以做一些贸易促进工作,但不能用枪顶着企业去做。

Trade is essentially a business deal by freedom of contract. You can lead a horse to the water, but you can’t make it drink. Likewise, governments can make efforts to promote trade, but cannot force companies to do business by pointing a gun at their heads.

6、彭博社:除了报复性关税之外,中国还有什么工具可以抵消美国对中国1500亿美元产品加征关税威胁?

Aside from retaliatory tariffs, what tools does China have for counteraction should the U.S. follow through on its threats of tariffs on $150 billion of Chinese products?

张向晨大使:作为一个大国,中国的政策工具箱里当然会有“十八般兵器”,但绝不会轻易使用。用不用、用哪件、何时用,需要根据形势发展而定,但目的只有一个,恢复正常的贸易秩序,“止戈为武”。

As a major country, China certainly has a full set of tools in its policy toolbox, just like the “eighteen main weapons of Chinese martial arts.” But we would not use them easily. As for whether and when to use the tools, or which one is picked, we will make our own decision in light of the situation. The ultimate and only purpose of using the tools is to restore the normal order of trade. As an old Chinese saying goes, force is to be used only for the maintenance of peace and order.

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